Financial Year – 5 April – 6 April
Currency – Pound sterling (GBP)

Corporate Tax Summary

Residence – A company is UK resident if it is incorporated in the UK or its place of central management and control is in the UK. A company not incorporated in the UK will be liable to UK corporation tax when it does business in the UK.

Basis of Taxation – Resident companies are taxed on worldwide income and gains with credit given on any foreign tax incurred. A non-resident company will be liable to UK corporation tax only if it carries out trade through a permanent establishment in the UK. Tax rates and treatment are the same for companies and branches of foreign companies.

Corporate Income Tax Rate (%)25%From 1 April 2023, Tthe main rate of corporation tax is now 25%. A small profits rate of 19% is applicable to companies with profits up to £50,000. Profits between £50,000-£250,000 are taxed at a marginal rate of 26.5%. The profits limits are reduced for a company with associated companies.
Branch Tax Rate (%)25%The main rate and small profits rate are as above.
Withholding Tax Rate:
Dividends – Franked0%A withholding tax of 20% will apply on dividends paid to non-resident companies on Property Income Dividends (PIDs) for Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and Property Authorised Investment Funds (PAIFs).
Dividends – Unfranked0%
Dividends – Conduit Foreign Income0%
Interest20%Interest paid to individuals or non-resident companies is subject to 20% withholding tax, unless the withholding tax rate is reduced or eliminated under a double taxation treaty.
Royalties from Intellectual Property20%Royalties paid to individuals or non-resident companies are subject to 20% withholding tax, unless the withholding tax rate is reduced or eliminated under a double taxation treaty.
Fund Payments from Managed Investment Trusts0%
Branch Remittance Tax0%
Net Operating Losses (Years)
Carry back12 months
Carry forwardIndefinite (or group relieved)Carry forward losses can be offset in full up to the level of the company’s deduction allowance. This allowance for an accounting period is up to £5million per group and is reduced for accounting periods of less than 12 months. After the allowance, profits can only be relieved by up to 50% using the carry forward losses.

Individual Tax Summary

Residence – Taxpayers who are resident in the UK in a tax year are taxable on their worldwide income and capital gains arising that year, while taxpayers who are NOT resident in the UK in a tax year are only taxable on their UK income arising in that year (their foreign income is not taxed). Subject to limited exceptions, non-residents do not pay capital gains tax.

The residence of an individual is determined according to the Statutory Residence Rules.

Basis of Taxation – UK resident taxpayers are taxed on their worldwide income and gains, with a tax credit available for the foreign tax paid on foreign income, up to the amount of UK tax payable on that income. Non UK tax residents are taxed only on their UK-source income. Residents who qualify as non UK domicile may elect to be taxed under the remittance basis of taxation to include only non UK sources of income remitted to the UK.

Filing Status – Each taxpayer must file a separate return each financial year; joint returns are not permitted.

Personal Income Tax Rates

Taxable IncomeTax Rates
£0 – 37,70020%
£37,701 – 125,14040%
Above £125,14045%

UK resident individuals are also entitled to a personal allowance whereby the first £12,570 of taxable income is taxed at 0%. This allowance is tapered away by £1 for every £2 of taxable income over £100,000. Non-UK residents may be entitled to a personal allowance depending on their circumstances.

In addition to personal income tax, individuals will be subject to National Insurance contributions of 9% on trading profits above £12,570 and up to £50,270 and 2% above £50,270.

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

Rate20% (5% reduced rate)
Taxable TransactionsValue Added Tax applies to most sales of goods, the provision of services and imports.
RegistrationRegistration is compulsory for businesses whose taxable supplies exceed £85,000 in a cumulative 12-month period or where a business expects that its taxable supplies will exceed this threshold within the next 30 days. Voluntary registration is possible for businesses making taxable supplies below this threshold.
Filing and PaymentVAT returns are generally due on a quarterly basis, although monthly and annual submissions are allowed. A surcharge may be imposed for late filing or payment of VAT.

Other Taxes Payable

Payroll TaxEmployers are required to withhold tax on employees earnings under PAYE and employers and employees National Insurance contributions.
Stamp DutyStamp Duty Reserve Tax at 0.5% applies on the transfer of UK shares and is payable by the transferee.
Land TaxStamp Duty Land Tax is charged on transfers of property (residential and commercial). For residential properties the SDLT rates are between 0% and 12% depending on the value of the property (rates increased by 3% where further property acquired). The rates for commercial property are 0% to 5% although a 15% rate applies to purchases of residential properties of more than £500,000.

Last updated: 14.09.2023