In law, liquidation is the process by which a company (or part of a company) is brought to an end, and the assets and property of the company redistributed. Liquidation is also sometimes referred to as winding-up or dissolution, although dissolution technically refers to the last stage of liquidation. The process of liquidation also arises when customs, an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties, determines the final computation or ascertainment of the duties or drawback accruing on an entry.
Liquidation may either be compulsory (sometimes referred to as a creditors’ liquidation) or voluntary
Voluntary liquidation occurs when the members of the company resolve to voluntarily wind-up the affairs of the company and dissolve. Voluntary liquidation begins when the company passes the resolution, and the company will generally cease to carry on business at that time (if it has not done so already). If the company is solvent, and the members have made a statutory declaration of solvency, the liquidation will proceed as a members’ voluntary winding-up. In such case, the general meeting will appoint the liquidator(s). If not, the liquidation will proceed as a creditor’s voluntary winding-up, and a meeting of creditors will be called, to which the directors must report on the company’s affairs. Where a voluntary liquidation proceeds by way of creditor’s voluntary liquidation, a liquidation committee may be appointed.